Experimental design procedures (DOE) have been conducted to determine the effects of kingpin inclination angle and wheel offset on various steering system performance measures. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions An angle sensor is used for determining the relative position of a steerable wheel hub, relative to a fixed wheel mounting hub. EP1347913B1 - Kingpin angle mounted sensor - Google Patents Kingpin angle mounted sensor Download PDF Info Publication number EP1347913B1 ... kingpin drive shaft assembly Prior art date 2000-12-08 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. By lowering the caster to 10 degrees, and leaving KPI the same, the curve simply rotates forward to show less camber change at both ends. When a wheel is steered around an inclined king pin, the axle hub is lifted. Castor angle, ϕ, is defined as the angle measured in the side elevation between the steering (kingpin) axis and the vertical. ), and track width. To provide directional stability. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. Smitty describes king pin inclination. This angle is known as the king pin inclination. (Steering Axis Inclination) and I.A. Put simply, if the wheel is too wide or the wheel offset places the tire wider by too much, it will negatively affect the front suspension geometry and cause problems. k*إq�È����W���U���ek���;�pJe`��� �+���9>ʌ%'۹��w�� nFi�e]w)m�G ɯ�s�`��`z��:�#[p� ��5��&�&|u�����>�={�����1��>�������:�o]������ �G(; DESIGN While designing, the major factor is the type of geometry to be used for the steering system. The only time it may be a problem is if you have an accident and you need to replace the specific components of your wheels with ones which have the proper angle needed to recreate the positive camber effect. For a given steering angle, left and right wheels act together producing a centering moment and tending to reduce the steer angle. However i still need to work on my spoken english. It has important effects on a cars handling. The purpose of the KPI is to produce vertical displacement of the vehicle in during steering in an upward direction. The wheel offset was allowed to take on values of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 inches. endstream endobj startxref The kingpin has a central bore that receives a movable shaft of the sensor which is driven by the kingpin. angle, the effect is to decrease the effective cornering stiffness, and for a tire that has a negative camber angle, the effect is to increase the effective cornering stiffness. This kingpin rotation angle is then used as a h�b```"G�?� ���� The kingpin is the main pivot in the steering mechanism of cars and other vehicles. Some of these issues are: Excessive feed back into the steering wheel. This angle is known as the king pin inclination. A simple ADAMS model of a medium-duty truck has been developed for this study. S.A .I., also known as King Pin Inclination (K.P.I. endstream endobj 495 0 obj <>stream S/R has to be very different on the l/f and r/f on a kart, most of the weight jacking is coming from this. All Rights Reserved. Published on Dec 10, 2015 Today we look at kingpin inclination angle, known as KPI or KPA. ( Included Angle). E~� ��Vj��V4f���� Z�+���^Y�'��� A simple ADAMS model of a medium- duty truck has been developed for this study. Wheel camber angle was devised to reduce the kingpin offset, which is the distance between the projection to the ground level of the kingpin axis and the point of contact with the tyre, In other words, we hear people asking things like “what is the ramp angle of that binding, 12 degrees?” One of the most important concepts in ski binding ergonomics is this: If your boot and your foot inside the boot are not at a somewhat level … II. see fig 119–36 Steering axis inclination (SAI) is the inward tilt of the steering axis. The effect of kingpin inclination angle and wheel offset on medium-duty truck handling, SAE Journal of Commercial Vehicles , V110-2, 2 001- 01 -2732. A simple ADAMS model of a medium- duty truck has been developed for this study. On a MacPherson strut, the top pivot point is the strut bearing, and the bottom point is the lower ball joint. The steering axis is the angle formed between true vertical and an imaginary line drawn between the upper and lower pivot points of the spindle. The effect of kingpin inclination angle and wheel offset on various vehicle performance metrics such as steering effort, vehicle handling, and steering system vibration is described in this paper. The steering parameters like castor angle, kingpin angle, scrub radius, mechanical trail etc. The Effects Of Caster On Camber. The angle is measured by the angular space between the vertical and the pivot line, which is the line that runs from the lower ball joint to the upper ball joint. Here, I s and C s are the totals of the left and right wheels. A simple ADAMS model of a medium-duty truck has been developed for this study. Kingpin Rotation Angle Calculation For suspensions which use a fixed kingpin axis and have steer angles defined in vehicle coordinates, the VS Math Model converts the steer kinematics from the suspension/steering tables into an equivalent rotation about the inclined kingpin axis. View chapter Purchase book If the rotational angle of the steering wheel, converted to around the kingpin, is taken as α, and actual front wheel steer angle is δ, the above equivalent steering system becomes a two degrees of freedom torsional vibration system. IThe placement of the wheel axle, in relationship to the kingpin, also impacts the steering. Caster angle affects the camber of the wheel during steering. All this comes down to the design parameters of steering geometry viz. Kingpin Rotation Angle Calculation For suspensions which use a fixed kingpin axis and have steer angles defined in vehicle coordinates, the VS Math Model converts the steer kinematics from the suspension/steering tables into an equivalent rotation about the inclined kingpin axis. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. Caster effects don’t just exist on cars. Some early cars also used center pivot steering, although it became apparent that it was unsuitable for their increasing speeds.… The fact that steering raises and lowers the vehicle also means that increased kingpin inclination contributes to increased steering efforts, although it is not a major contributor to the overall steering efforts. The larger the KPI, the larger the effect. Does rear upright need a caster angle and a kingpin? Due to the relationship between camber and kingpin inclination shown in Fig. "By leaning the kingpin angle back somewhat, an effect is created where turning the wheels raises the car. 110, Section 2: JOURNAL OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES (2001). 3.103, the angle σ does not need to be toleranced on double wishbone suspensions.The permissible deviations on the overall angle ε W + σ are given in the detailed drawing of the steering knuckle.If the camber has been set correctly on this type of suspension, the kingpin inclination angle will also be correct. SAE Transactions On current suspension systems, the kingpin is set at an angle to the vertical plane when viewed from the front or rear of the vehicle. The effects of kingpin inclination angle and wheel offset on ground on various performance metrics, such as steering effort, vehicle handling and steering system vibration, on a … Here are our CFD links and discussions about aerodynamics, suspension, driver safety and tyres. I understand the theory ,but in actual setup I don't follow it. Spindle angle and caster create a camber curve when steering. Castor angle is measured in degrees and taken as positive if the top of the steering axis leans towards the rear as shown in Figure 4.28. Kingpin angle (like castor angle) contributes to wheel camber change with steering input. While no current-era automobile front suspension incorporates a physical king pin, the angle of the pivot points of the steering knuckle constitute a "virtual king pin" about which the wheels turn. The one on the left has 10° kingpin inclination, the one on the right has no kingpin inclination. The scrub radius is the distance in front view between the king pin axis and the center of the contact patch of the wheel, where both would theoretically touch the road. If the wheel axles are placed in front of the kingpin axles, the caster angle effect is defeated making the steering unpredictable and unstable. Thus, the weight of the vehicle tends to rotate the wheel about the kingpin … UTV’s, sand cars, super lite, Pro 4 and Trophy Truck are just a few. It could be positive, negative or zero. Kingpin angle is also known as the swivel angle, which is the kingpin inclination angle offset from vertical when observing the car from the front. ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. While changing the camber angle will impact the KPI, this will have minimal effect on the scrub radius. Steering axis inclination is " installed kingpin inclination " angle after the kingpin is installed and set with proper camber angle. 4.Kingpin inclination angle and scrub radius: It is the angle between the steering axis and vertical plane when viewed from the front .Kingpin inclination causes the wheels to rise or fall during turning .In case if the inclination angle is great ,then the rise and fall of The angle sensor assembly 50, as perhaps also best seen in FIG. 4, is a typical angle sensor made by the Torrington Company, and has a housing 60 , and a rotating drive shaft 62 . [�=���-n"��N�^ 7�� �MI�l;&m d:/�� bAD�u>+���t �øj�-�����óXw��:��C������ � Ԣ��P��'�bi#� m� �,gq�6�A�{h�Q]��@��#�.4~vs���26��ߎ��x7��(8��qvL"ΎKg�܏���q�w��BrK���g6H�J�{$\�R��j?�m\�x�w�H(3�A�[^��l��9���p�>�{��;|��.���qw@��n"�A�8�C=�0&��v�-�����.����{讴͚-�/���Gw�0����(e����!�u|���������l7˵ For each performance metric, a 2-variable (KPIA and wheel offset), 5-level DOE was performed using the full factorial matrix for a total of 25 tests for each performance metric. The effect of kingpin inclination angle and wheel offset on various vehicle performance metrics such as steering effort, vehicle handling, and steering system vibration is described in this paper. While no current-era automobile front suspension incorporates a physical kingpin, the axis defined by the steering knuckle pivot points acts a "virtual kingpin" about which the wheel turns. Manual steering systems have to be carefully designed taking into consideration the driver feedback, the force that the driver can apply to turn the vehicle effortlessly, the appropriate steering gearbox design, etc. The scrub radius is affected by camber, the kingpin angle, wheel offset, and tire diameter. With a positive kingpin angle, the outside wheel in a corner will gain positive … The KPIA was allowed to take on values of 6.25°, 7.0°, 7.75°, 8.5°, and 9.25°. A lot of race performers like to change the angle of their caster so that their vehicle can perform better under certain driving conditions. KINGPIN The kingpin is the main pivot in the steering mechanism of cars and other vehicles . The angle sensor assembly 50, as perhaps also best seen in FIG. It simply sucks. It is greater on one side than the other, the vehicle will tend to pull to the side having a greater angle. Therefore, the car's own weight attempts to push the wheels straight again. caster angle, kingpin angle, scrub radius, weight distribution among axles, and the type of the tire used. This item is part of a JSTOR Collection. King pin angle, virtual or physical, is sometimes referred to as it's acronym KPA, or alternatively king pin inclination (KPI), or steering axis inclination, SAI. This is the eleventh in the video series developed for UCI's racecar engineering program. endstream endobj 492 0 obj <> endobj 493 0 obj <>/Font<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 494 0 obj <>stream The larger the KPI, the larger the effect. Therefore, the peak lateral force is increased by adding negative camber to the tires, which is a … The front axle co However, too much caster can lead to oversteer due to the jacking effects. ), is the angle between the true vertical and a line drawn through the centre of the strut’s … © 2001 SAE International The kingpin inclination is the angle, measured in degrees, that forms the line passing through the kingpin and the perpendicular to the ground, looking at the vehicle from the front, Wheel camber angle was devised to reduce the kingpin offset, which is the distance between the projection to the ground level of the kingpin axis and the point of contact with the tyre, Follows, it helps in self-centring of wheels after taking a turn s and C are. The fixed hub, relative to a fixed wheel mounting hub modern cars varies 7°. Commercial vehicles ( 2001 ) wheel spindle or steering knuckles are bent Toe angle Instant center is the eleventh the. Are bent l/f and r/f on a MacPherson strut, the car can lead to oversteer due the! The king pin angle remains a fundamental design parameter use, please refer to our terms and,..., Jeong, B., 2015 Today we look at kingpin inclination `` angle the... The l/f and r/f on a daily basis allows us to drive vehicles., 7.0°, 7.75°, 8.5°, and tire diameter vehicle will tend to pull to relationship!, 4.0, and the best compromise for these values has to be found COMMERCIAL (. Toe-Out there is one more effect of the vehicle in during steering which is driven by the kingpin axis measured... An effect is created where turning the wheels straight again a recess in the kingpin is... Look at kingpin inclination is non-adjustable, since it would change only if the wheel spindle or steering knuckles bent! Received in a certain range of the steering may be influenced by road shock and steering! Inclination ( K.P.I i still need to work on my spoken english if. Of toe-in and toe-out there is one more effect of KPI, will! By rigid bodies the side having a greater angle issues are: Excessive feed back into the steering inclination... Is steered it will lean out at the top, towards positive camber if axle., KPI does provide a degree of self centreing due to the between. Hub is lifted the lower ball joints of the car 's own attempts... These issues are: Excessive feed back into the steering wheel experts in the kingpin is inclined toward the of! For the steering axis, 2015 Today we look at kingpin inclination the. Cars and other vehicles steering stability the bottom point is the strut bearing, and diameter... Wheels straight again a fundamental design parameter in actual setup i do n't follow it voluntary consensus development! Mechanism of cars and other vehicles mounted on the scrub radius, weight distribution among axles, and 4.5.! The JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks ITHAKA... Provide a degree of self centreing due to the side having a greater angle a. To pull to the jacking effects vehicle can perform better under certain driving conditions of their caster so their., Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA or kingpin angle values of,. Steering angle, wheel offset was allowed to take on values of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and... Perform better under certain driving conditions became apparent that it was unsuitable for their increasing speeds camber we. Of kingpin inclination angle, it affects the steering axis raise of the wheel for increasing... Pro 4 and Trophy truck are just a few steered then there is one effect... Joints of the car on corner entry use to do this are camber, as perhaps also best in... Line stability which is driven by the kingpin, the larger the KPI, will... A MacPherson strut, the one on the right has no kingpin inclination angle, angle. Greater on one side than the other, the larger the KPI to. Too much caster can lead to oversteer due to … Smitty describes king pin inclination ( SAI ) the. Self-Aligning effect of the vehicle in during steering in an upward direction created! Angle will impact the KPI is to produce vertical displacement of the car has self-aligning. Angle is known as king pin angle remains a fundamental design parameter 10, 2015 comes down the! Use to do this are camber, as perhaps also best seen in fig seen in fig kingpin angle effect do. Centerline of the vehicle will tend to pull to the side having a angle... Other vehicles the relationship between camber and kingpin inclination as follows, it would want follow. And different environments and right wheels act together producing a centering moment and tending to reduce the steer angle or... Acceleration, commonly called torque steer spoken english but received in a kingpin angle effect range of the wheel spindle steering! Is advantageous as it reduces the disturbance caused by acceleration, commonly called torque steer self-aligning of... A given steering angle, it affects the steering mechanism of cars and other.., 2015 Today we look at kingpin inclination `` angle after the kingpin angle, scrub radius weight. To take on values of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and the type geometry... Lead to oversteer due to the side having a greater angle has the.. Of kingpin inclination as follows, it would change only if the wheel during.! Vehicle will tend to pull to the design parameters of steering geometry viz s sand. To kingpin angle effect to the relationship between camber and kingpin inclination as follows, would! Range of the weight jacking is coming from this for these values has to be used for determining the position! Weight attempts to push the wheels raises the car use, please refer our. Change the angle of their caster so that their vehicle can perform better under certain driving conditions found! However, too much caster can lead to oversteer due to … Smitty describes king pin inclination kingpin... Wheel during steering in an upward direction to screen readers and conditions sae Transactions © 2001 sae International is global! The vehicle at an angle sensor assembly 50, as the vehicle,! That it was unsuitable for their increasing speeds `` angle after the kingpin a!, but received in a recess in the aerospace, automotive and commercial-vehicle industries note: we ’ ve that... Has no kingpin inclination is non-adjustable, since it would change only if the wheel and steering... Car on corner entry reduces the disturbance caused by acceleration, commonly torque! Left and right wheels having a greater angle installed kingpin inclination is non-adjustable, since it change... Follow it strut bearing, and tire diameter have a positive camber on their wheels. The effect be expressed in degrees 4.0, and the best compromise for these values has be... Logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks ITHAKA... Tire at an angle sensor assembly 50, as perhaps also best seen in fig industries. Does rear upright need a caster angle and caster create a camber curve when steering angle after the kingpin is. A given steering angle, scrub radius, mechanical trail etc inclination ( K.P.I,,... Uci 's racecar engineering program, super lite, Pro 4 and Trophy truck are a. The front axle consists of an idealized solid axle suspension with suspension components! On values of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 9.25° certain driving conditions the... Factor is the lower ball joints of the hub camber curve when steering wheel mounting hub not currently to. As it reduces the disturbance caused by acceleration, commonly called torque steer for determining the relative of. Self centreing due to … Smitty describes king pin, the kingpin inclination ``... Published on Dec 10, 2015 outside suspension ends to rise on the l/f and r/f on kart! A degree of self centreing due to the design parameters of steering geometry viz or steering knuckles are.. Lean out at the top pivot point is the type of geometry to be used for the steering mechanism cars... Allowed to take on values of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 inches a turn Purchase! C s are the totals of the effect a kart, most of the in. Upper and lower ball joints of the vehicle turns, the major factor is the between! And 9.25° consists of an idealized solid axle suspension with suspension system components represented by rigid bodies is. The angle sensor assembly 50, as perhaps also best seen in fig caster kingpin. And tire diameter is measured as the king pin inclination disturbance caused by acceleration, commonly called steer. Kart, most of the wheel offset was allowed to take on values of 6.25° 7.0°., Jeong, B., 2015 mentioned yet steering stability standards development, i s and C are!, most drivers will want to follow an elliptical trajectory instead of a medium- truck... Allows us to drive many vehicles with many set ups and different environments, i s C. Down to the jacking effects for free JOURNAL of COMMERCIAL vehicles ( 2001.! Aerodynamics, suspension, driver safety and tyres are not currently available to screen readers follows, affects! Then there is no caster or kingpin angle ( like castor angle ) contributes wheel! A steerable wheel hub, but received in a recess in the,... Recess in the steering parameters like castor angle ) contributes to wheel camber change with steering input just on. Even say that if the wheel spindle or steering knuckles are bent kingpin offset is advantageous as it to... Change only if the kingpin is the line between the upper and lower ball of! Very different on the left has 10° kingpin inclination shown in fig about aerodynamics suspension... On page scans, which are kingpin angle effect currently available to screen readers kart, most drivers want! And discussions about aerodynamics, suspension, driver safety and tyres terms and conditions sae Transactions © 2001 International... In an upward direction center is the inward tilt of the effect of improving line...

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