human trafficking in germany

Traffickers continue to fraudulently recruit and later coerce Nigerian women and girls to stay in exploitative situations using a “voodoo oath” they are forced to swear. Of these, courts convicted 47 defendants for sex trafficking and three for labor trafficking. Traffickers exploit victims of forced labor primarily at construction sites, but also in hotels, meat-processing plants, seasonal industries, and restaurants, and as caregivers in private homes, with reported increases in the number of child victims. Prostitution is legal and regulated in Germany. While the government investigated, prosecuted, and convicted more suspects in 2018, fewer individuals convicted under only a trafficking offense served prison time compared to the year prior. Russia is where people forced to become sex workers most commonly come from and Germany the place they most often end up working, the United Nations said Tuesday after studying thousands of cases of human trafficking. The raids resulted in seven arrested suspects who allegedly subjected female and transgender Thai victims to trafficking. KOK therefore is an umbrella organisation with about 40 members that provide services, such as counselling centres and shelters, for victims of trafficking. Prosecutions declined from 90 in 2016 and 89 in 2015 and marked the fewest prosecutions in 10 years. KOK is a German NGO network and coordination office against trafficking in human beings. However, not all states had referral agreements for victims of all forms of trafficking, including forced begging and forced criminality. In 2019, a state-funded NGO provided anti-trafficking legal training to 30 investigators, and the police provided anti-trafficking training to 200 police officers and youth welfare office managers, specifically for minors. The government also did not report awarding damages to any victims through civil suits. Traffickers subject Roma and foreign unaccompanied minors to sex trafficking, forced begging, and other coerced criminal behavior. Through an international program, German police cooperated with Nigerian police on anti-trafficking efforts twice in 2019. German citizens comprised 21 percent of the suspects, followed by Bulgarians (19 percent), and Romanians (13 percent), remaining relatively the same as prior years. Labor trafficking victims are predominantly male and European, including from North Macedonia, Latvia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Poland, and Romania, but also Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Vietnam. The Government of Germany does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so. The criminal code criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking under Sections 232 and 233 and prescribed punishments of six months’ to 10 years’ imprisonment, which were sufficiently stringent and, with regard to sex trafficking, commensurate with penalties prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. As Petra Follmar-Otto convincingly shows in her article, “A human rights approach against human trafficking – International obligations and the status of implemen- tation in Germany”, human trafficking does not simply amount to reducing organised crime, and also repre- sents a human rights challenge for key state players. The government maintained law enforcement efforts. The government sustained funding for NGOs that produced public awareness campaigns in Germany and abroad through websites, postcards, telephone hotlines, pamphlets, and speaking engagements. Alongside human trafficking for sexual exploitation or illegal organ removal, human trafficking for labour exploitation is on the rise, too. Kainos is a nonprofit ministry working against human trafficking and sexual exploitation in prostitution in Stuttgart, Germany and around the world. The government had not appointed a national rapporteur, a key recommendation of GRETA’s 2015 report, as well as NGOs and some state-level officials. An October 2018 study by KOK also noted challenges for all groups in providing adequate accommodation. Most, but not all, states had dedicated anti-trafficking investigation units; a couple of states had specialized prosecutors, but no states had judges or courts that specialized in trying or hearing human trafficking cases. The government did not report any investigations, prosecutions, or convictions of officials complicit in human trafficking offenses. Coordinator for the Arctic Region, Bureaus and Offices Reporting Directly to the Secretary, Office of the Coordinator for Cyber Issues, Office of the U.S. Germany remained without an anti-trafficking national action plan. Even though NGOs contributed to the BMZ document, many still described the measures as limited in effect, overly broad, vague, and non-binding on companies. Under German sentencing practices, judges typically suspended sentences under two years, particularly for first-time offenders, for most crimes, including for human trafficking convictions. Of the 18 defendants receiving prison time, sentences ranged from six months to 10 years, with 12 of those defendants sentenced to prison terms between two and five years, one serving five to 10 years, and five serving less than two years. In cooperation with an NGO, the government held informational events for domestic workers on their rights. The German government sustained efforts to prevent human trafficking throughout the year. In a new report published today, the Council of Europe expert body on trafficking in human beings (GRETA) praises Germany for having significantly evolved its national legal framework against human trafficking since the first evaluation of the implementation of the Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings in 2015. Germany’s Prostitute Protection Act of 2016 mandated individuals in prostitution register for a license and required counseling sessions, including on health and legal rights. Therefore Germany was downgraded to Tier 2. Prevention. The definition of trafficking in human beings has therefore evolved in German criminal law. For all cases in which a court convicted a defendant of multiple crimes, government statistics filed it under the charge for which the court imposed the longest sentence. As reported over the past five years, Germany is a source, transit, and destination country for women, children, and men subjected to sex and labor trafficking. In comparison, a higher percentage of defendants convicted of rape in 2018 served prison time (58 percent). A clear increase in labor trafficking was recorded. Almost all sex trafficking victims were female (96 percent) and nearly half (48 percent) of all sex trafficking victims were younger than 21. Courts convicted 68 traffickers, compared to 50 in 2017. • Increase availability of training for judges on adjudicating trafficking cases, both through focused courses on trafficking and similar modules in broader training courses. The law required officials across all states to screen for trafficking indicators during registration, during which officials identified numerous individuals subjected to force, fraud, or coercion. • Increase prioritization of labor trafficking, including victim identification and investigation and prosecution of labor traffickers. The Federal Agency for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) continued to utilize its standard operating procedures and trafficking indicator lists to identify potential victims in the asylum protection system and made referrals to counseling centers, though NGOs continued to suggest improvements in victim identification. Notable cases during the reporting period included a case in June 2019 where the government issued its first trafficking conviction for forced criminality and several cases where traffickers were issued significant sentences, including one sentence of nine and a half years. The government’s service center for agencies and professionals working on trafficking cases, Servicestelle, continued to provide training to prosecutors on forced labor and provided a new anti-trafficking training to local job center personnel. The government did not provide anti-trafficking training for its diplomatic personnel, but did so for troops prior to deployment on international peacekeeping missions. A Berlin court sentenced three defendants to an average of nearly eight years’ imprisonment each in November 2018 in a case of both kidnapping and sex trafficking of several girls from Berlin. The German government sustained efforts to prevent human trafficking throughout the year. The German Judicial Academy, in cooperation with the European Judicial Training Network, offers seminars on international human trafficking and trafficking of migrants. There was limited comprehensive or long-term support across the centers for children and male trafficking victims, and KOK noted overall availability of services and shelters was inconsistent across states. The states collectively prosecuted 96 defendants for trafficking in 2018, compared to 76 in 2017. The Ministry of Development and International Cooperation (BMZ) established guidelines in 2018 and support structures with a target of 50 percent of companies required to report on human rights measures incorporated into their operations by 2020, including trafficking in supply chains. Under German sentencing practices, judges typically suspended sentences under two years, particularly for first-time offenders, for most crimes, including human trafficking. However, some NGOs expressed concern that the most vulnerable victims of trafficking would either not register, or register without disclosing trafficking crimes. Most identified sex trafficking victims in Germany are EU citizens, primarily Bulgarians, Romanians (of which a significant percentage are ethnic Roma), as well as German citizens. Signed: 17 November 2005 Ratified: 19 December 2012 Entry into force: 1 April 2013. Government-funded counseling centers or youth welfare organizations together assisted approximately 33 percent of victims identified (compared to 34 percent in 2016), while BKA reported 47 percent declined offers of specialized care and did not have information on the remaining 20 percent of victims. Investigations and prosecutions were handled at the state level; each state had a separate system to refer victims to either state-run support or NGOs, and several states had written identification guidelines for some, but not all, forms of trafficking. Germany Human Trafficking Newswire. This paper investigates relationship between migration and human trafficking in Germany by analyzing macro-level data from 150 countries. Each of the 50 BAMF offices across Germany included at least one representative to assist in identifying and supporting potential victims of trafficking. Trafficking-specific NGO service providers operated in 45 cities, providing shelter, medical and psychological care, legal assistance, vocational support, and assistance acquiring residence permits. The EU Directive on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting its Victims has now been implemented by Germany, which lead to a comprehensive reform of provisions regarding trafficking in human beings and exploitation in 2016. tation in Germany”, human trafficking does not simply amount to reducing organised crime, and also repre-sents a human rights challenge for key state players. These efforts resulted in the arrest of four suspected Romanian child sex traffickers. Text of the Convention in German non-official translation. The federal criminal police (Bundeskriminalamt or BKA) maintained an information portal for federal and state police forces with information on current trends, guidelines, and investigative tools for combating trafficking; Servicestelle also maintained an online platform that provided access to information on guidelines, agreements, and counseling centers for victims. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Learn the translation for ‘human trafficking’ in LEO’s English ⇔ German dictionary. Human trafficking, also called trafficking in persons, form of modern-day slavery involving the illegal transport of individuals by force or deception for the purpose of labour, sexual exploitation, or activities in which others benefit financially.Human trafficking is a global problem affecting people of all ages. Victims also come from most other regions of the world, particularly China, Nigeria, and other parts of Africa. Published on Jan 8, 2021. For all cases in which a court convicted a defendant of multiple crimes, government statistics filed it only under the charge that has the highest statutory sentence. Germany is also a member of the European Convention on Human Rights [EHRC]. Vigorously investigate and prosecute suspected labor and sex traffickers, and sentence convicted traffickers to adequate penalties, which should involve serving significant prison terms. Germany has implemented the EU Directive on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting its Victims (2011/36/EU), 32 which in October 2016 led to a comprehensive reform of legal provisions regarding trafficking in human beings and exploitation. While the government did not report the total number of victims that received care, of the 430 identified sex trafficking victims, 157 were referred to victim protection services and received care through specialized counseling centers. In August 2019, the government reported convicting and sentencing a German male to 13.5 years of prison for child sex tourism while he was in Thailand. Victims who agreed to testify could remain and work in Germany through the duration of the trial. Courts convicted 50 defendants, down from 72 in 2016 and 77 in 2015. Most identified sex trafficking victims in Germany are EU citizens, primarily Bulgarians, Romanians, and Germans, although victims also come from most other regions of the world, particularly China, Nigeria, and other parts of Africa. Germany must do more to avert human trafficking, a Council of Europe evaluation team has said. Victims who agreed to testify could remain and work in Germany through the duration of the trial. The government made significant efforts to meet the minimum standards during the reporting period by identifying more labor trafficking victims, launching major investigations into sex trafficking rings, and increasing funding for victim protection and support. The government passed the Act of Illicit Work and Illicit Employment with the intention of addressing labor trafficking by streamlining data exchange between relevant law enforcement offices and by extending the mandate of FKS to include trafficking, thereby increasing staff that could potentially identify forced labor victims. In 2018, authorities identified two Romanian victims of forced begging, as well as eight victims of forced criminality. The law did not require proof of force or coercion to prosecute suspected sex traffickers when victims were younger than age 21. Burkina Faso: Five things you need to know this week about global education (January 8, 2021) Funding will help to prevent girls dropping out of school in a crisis zone - while classes cancelled by Covid-19 are resuming after nine months in Kenya and Ethiopia. Under German sentencing practices, judges typically suspended sentences under two years, particularly for first-time offenders, for most crimes, including human trafficking. NGO counseling centers funded by the government served both labor and sex trafficking victims, although many centers worked only with female sex trafficking victims. However, the number of Nigerian and Hungarian suspects increased compared to 2017. Subject to certain requirements, victims could join criminal trials as joint plaintiffs and were entitled to free legal counsel and pursuit of civil remedies as part of the criminal proceeding. The Federal Criminal Police organized specialized seminars to educate investigating officers on trafficking. The government maintained efforts to prevent trafficking. The high number of suspended sentences for trafficking convictions, with only 36 percent of convicted sex traffickers in 2017 serving prison time and all three convicted labor traffickers receiving only fines, undercut efforts to hold traffickers accountable, and did not meet the minimum standard generally requiring incarceration for convicted traffickers. English It would also be important to have a European day against human trafficking . Germany had no single national action plan on trafficking, but had a broader plan to counter violence against women, a strategy to combat labor trafficking, and a National Action Plan on Business and Human Rights, which included supply chain issues as one component. Similarly, Roma families sometimes force their children, both male and female, into commercial sex on the streets. The government increased funding for bilateral and EU-based anti-trafficking programs in source countries in 2018, notably Nigeria. To address this need, in January 2019, the government approved €220 million ($252.29 million) to expand judicial staff, prosecutors, and police for all criminal cases. • Establish a process to ensure systematic provision of care for child victims and extend more specialized care, services, and accommodations for youth and male victims. In 2017, the most recent year for which comprehensive statistics were available, state government authorities, who are responsible for protection efforts, identified 669 trafficking victims, an increase from 536 in 2016. Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. Human trafficking, car thefts, cigarette smuggling "I know that Thomas’s father was in pre-trial detention, but only on suspicion of car thefts. During the reporting period, NGOs expressed concern regarding the labor recruitment process, and there were reports of Polish companies forging immigration documents, paying below minimum wage, charging exorbitant housing fees, and threatening retaliation and reporting of illegal immigration status if workers complained. • Increase the capacity of investigators, prosecutors, and courts with specific expertise on trafficking cases to minimize delay in bringing cases to trial. 1st Evaluation Round. • Increase the capacity of investigators, prosecutors, and courts with specific expertise on trafficking cases to minimize delay in bringing cases to trial. The Country is often criticized for its lax standards when it comes to eliminating prostitution. Photo courtesy of Ha Tinh police. ... of human trafficking and their shortcomings … This study explores the issue and presents recommendations on how to protect migrant workers from labour exploitation. The government funded services through the Network against Trafficking in Human Beings (KOK), the quasi-governmental NGO also charged with coordinating and overseeing victim support efforts across Germany. The German government has undertaken several preventive initiatives over the last few years. In its annual report on human trafficking around the globe, the Americans said perpetrators in Germany, especially those involved in forced prostitution, rarely end up behind bars. Human trafficking in Germany by Petra Follmar-Otto, 2009, German Institute for Human Rights edition, in English The government did not have a dedicated anti-trafficking coordination committee addressing all forms of trafficking, but had three federal-state interagency working groups that coordinate with each other and addressed all forms of trafficking. The federal government, through NGOs, co-funded and implemented various awareness campaigns, in addition to efforts at the state level. Officials in various German states, including Lower Saxony, Bavaria, and North-Rhine Westphalia, also organized judicial trainings on trafficking, including emphasis on victim-centered approaches. Migrants and refugees remain vulnerable to sex or labor traffickers upon arrival. A futher two … A joint operation between federal police, the Financial Monitoring Unit to Combat Illicit Employment (FKS), and an NGO, resulted in the identification of 160 Serbian workers; however, rather than recognize the workers as suspected trafficking victims and despite the disagreement of other relevant government authorities, immigration authorities instead penalized the workers by refusing to issue certificates that would entitle them to victim protections and issued a two-year entry ban to some of them for working illegally in Germany. recommendations for the EU in the area of human trafficking, adopted by the EU Council on 8 May 2003. While the law allowed for compensation from the government, it could only be awarded to victims who had experienced direct physical violence, and the government did not report whether it awarded compensation to any victims during the reporting period. Compared to 2017, the government nearly doubled its labor trafficking investigations in 2018. NGO service providers operated in 45 cities, providing shelter, medical and psychological care, legal assistance, vocational support, and other services. Context sentences for "human trafficking" in German These sentences come from external sources and may not be accurate. Five people have gone on trial in Germany for allegedly trafficking up to 200 Thai women and forcing them to work in a nationwide network of brothels. In a notable case, in April 2018, 1,500 officers coordinated raids across 12 states at 62 locations, including brothels and private apartments, the largest ever for the federal police. German police have raided 26 premises across the country on Wednesday during an operation to dismantle human trafficking rings. Germany processed 41 incoming extraditions requests and seven outgoing requests in 2017 for trafficking-related charges. • Adopt a national anti-trafficking action plan. During the reporting period, Germany extradited 26 suspected traffickers to 11 countries and received 18 trafficking suspects from eight countries. In November 2018, three Nigerian women received sentences in the Hesse state court ranging from two years and two months to three years and three months for recruiting Nigerian women as sex trafficking victims and prosecutors filed a motion for the court to reconsider a longer prison sentence. Similarly, other big-name German pimps get treated like royalty. Organ trafficking is a growing industry possibly due to an enormous 40-45 percent unemployment rate in Kosovo, leaving the citizens with very little options for survival. • Appoint a national rapporteur to provide independent review of government efforts on both labor and sex trafficking. 180 people were victims of this form of trafficking in 2017, while in 2016 the German police registered 48 victims. The Federal Agency for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) identified more potential victims in the asylum protection system than in recent years and made referrals to counseling centers. Several foreign governments also reported German citizens engaged in sex tourism abroad. Human trafficking is high on the agenda of Germany. China In the human rights community, it has long been known that China harvests the organs of its death row prisoners. The government’s service center for agencies and professionals working on trafficking cases, Servicestelle, also provided training for prosecutors on forced labor. The federal police (Bundeskriminalamt, or BKA) maintained an information portal for federal and state police forces, with information on current trends, guidelines, and investigative tools for combating trafficking. More than 700 police officers searched 30 homes and businesses across Germany on Tuesday in a crackdown on human trafficking from Vietnam, authorities said. Illegal human trafficking is a major focus of police work in Germany, yet it remains prevalent. Human trafficking in Germany. The government identified fewer victims and had incomplete data on the number of victims and those provided with care. Human trafficking in Germany strengthening victim's human rights by Petra Follmar-Otto. Vigorously investigate and prosecute suspected labor and sex traffickers, and sentence convicted traffickers to punishments proportionate to the severity of the crime. German citizens comprised 25 percent of the suspects, followed by Bulgarians (22 percent) and Romanians (18 percent). Traffickers subject Roma and foreign unaccompanied minors to sex trafficking, forced begging, and other coerced criminal behavior. Of the investigations, there were 356 for sex trafficking (compared to 327 in 2017), 21 for labor trafficking (compared to 11 in 2017), two for forced begging (compared to two in 2017), and seven for forced criminality (compared to zero in 2017). Law enforcement data also has shown an overall multi-year decline in convictions for trafficking since 2009. Several foreign governments continue to report German citizens engage in sex tourism abroad. The EU Directive on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting its Victims has now been implemented by Germany, which lead to a comprehensive reform of provisions regarding trafficking in human beings and exploitation in 2016. The seminars are geared towards criminal court judges, public administration judges, and public prosecutors dealing with international trafficking in human beings. Trade union-affiliated and migrant counseling centers also supported labor trafficking victims. Authorities continue to report the prevalence of young male traffickers, known as “lover boys,” coercing girls and women into sex trafficking, often through a sham romantic relationship. State governments also supported trafficking victims; for instance, the Bavarian labor ministry provided €600,000 ($688,070) in 2017 and North-Rhine-Westphalia funded €1 million ($1.15 million) in 2018 to support eight counseling centers and committed an additional €667,920 ($765,960) per year starting in 2019. Frequent turnover, insufficient personnel, and limited dedicated trafficking resources could hinder law enforcement efforts, sometimes leading to protracted court cases that were ultimately dismissed due to the statute of limitations or the unwillingness of victims to participate in prolonged proceedings. The law provided legal alternatives to removal to countries in which victims would face retribution or hardship. Moreover, trafficking for exploitation in the practice of begging was registered for the first time in the Federal Situation Report on Human Trafficking and Exploitation of the BKA. The states collectively prosecuted 76 defendants for trafficking in 2017, including 71 defendants for sex trafficking and five for labor trafficking. Of these, 430 were victims of sex trafficking (489 in 2017) and 63 of labor trafficking (180 in 2017). We have developed and continue to develop professional projects that are designed to help those who have been sexually trafficked or sexually exploited by individuals or circumstances. The high number of suspended sentences for trafficking convictions, with only 23 percent of convicted sex traffickers in 2018 serving prison time, undercut efforts to hold traffickers accountable and did not meet the minimum standard generally requiring incarceration for convicted traffickers. Twelve percent of trafficking victims were younger than 18 years old. Family members were eligible for residency in certain circumstances. The government decreased law enforcement efforts. The criminal code criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking under Sections 232, 232(a), 232(b), 233, and 233(a) and prescribed punishments of six months to 10 years’ imprisonment, which were sufficiently stringent and, with regard to sex trafficking, commensurate with penalties prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. BAMF introduced a new training module in 2019 that focused specifically on human trafficking and reached approximately 80-100 asylum decision makers. • Increase worker protections by eliminating recruitment or placement fees charged to workers by German labor recruiters and ensuring employers pay any recruitment fees. During this period, convictions ranged from 88 in 2014 to 123 in 2007 and averaged 116 trafficking convictions per year. • Establish a uniform and comprehensive data collection system, including publicly available disaggregated data on sentencing where courts convict defendants of both trafficking and one or more other serious crimes. The law granted officials the authority to issue residence permits to victims in cases of humanitarian hardship, for public interest, or who faced injury or threats to life or freedom in their countries of origin; however, GRETA noted there were significant discrepancies from state to state in the application of the law. In 2018, the most recent year for which comprehensive statistics were available, state government authorities, who are responsible for protection efforts, identified 503 trafficking victims, compared to 669 in 2017. Destinations included the UK, Ireland and Germany, where their sexual exploitation continued. Male victims and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, Office of the 50 BAMF offices across Germany included least. Last few years fundamental rights is also provided for in the human by. That migrant networks of a specific source country pull human trafficking and three for labor trafficking facilitate human victims. 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human trafficking in germany 2021